All Entries in the Category "Searching the ADS"

Search Basics

ADS’s one box search form supports both fielded and unfielded queries. Queries without fields will search the metadata and the full text of the publications, which may not produce the expected results. For instance, if you are searching for papers by the author Marc Mars, you want to search for author:”Mars, M” instead of Marc Mars to make sure that you don’t return papers that simply have the words “Marc” and “Mars” somewhere in the body of the article.

Fielded Searches

Above the search box we supply shortcuts to frequently used search fields. Simply click on the field that you wish to search and enter your search term in the provided location (generally between the supplied quotation marks). Alternatively, if you start entering the name of a field an autocomplete feature will suggest a list of possible search fields. You may string several search terms or use the filters provided with your results to help narrow the search selection. For instance if you want to find articles published between 1980 and 1990 by John Huchra, you can use:

author:"Huchra, John" year:1980-1990

To get you started, here is a list of search examples for commonly used fields:

Example Query Explanation
author:”huchra, john” search for papers written by an author
author:”^huchra, john” limit search to first-author papers
abs:”dark energy” search for the phrase “dark energy” in abstract and title
year:2000 search for publications written in 2000
year:2000-2005 search for publications written between 2000 and 2005 (inclusive)
body:”gravitational waves” search for papers containing the phrase “gravitational waves” in the body of an article
full:”gravitational waves” search for papers containing the phrase “gravitational waves” in a number of fields (title, abstract, body, acknowledgements and keywords)
bibstem:ApJ select papers published in a particular publication
object:((SMC OR LMC) AND M31) using the SIMBAD object search, find papers tagged with either SMC or LMC and M31

The rest of this page goes over the search syntax and fields indexed in our database.

Combining Search Terms to Make a Compound Query

You can string together any number of search terms to develop a query. By default search terms will be combined using AND as the default boolean operator, but this can be changed by explicitly specifying OR beween them. Similarly one can exclude a term by prepending a “-“ sign to it (or using the boolean “NOT”). Multiple search words or phrases may be grouped in a fielded query by enclosing them in parenthesis. Some examples:

Example Query Results
abs:(QSO “dark energy”) papers containing both “QSO” and “dark energy” in their abstract
abs:(QSO OR “dark energy”) papers containing either “QSO” or “dark energy in their abstract
author:”huchra, j” abs:cfa papers by J. Huchra which have “cfa” in their abstract
author:”huchra, j” OR abs:”great wall” papers by J. Huchra or which mention “great wall” in their abstract
author:”huchra, j” -title:2mass papers by “J. Huchra” but excludes ones with “2mass” in their title
author:”huchra, j” NOT title:2mass same as above

Synonyms and Acronyms

By default most search terms in ADS are expanded by adding a list of words which are synonyms of the search term. So for example, a search of “star” in the title field will be expanded to include words such as “stars,” “stellar,” “starry,” “starlike,” and so on. (Notice that this often includes words in foreign languages such as “etoile,” “stern,” and “stella”). While this feature improves recall, it sometimes compromises the precision of the results. Our search engine allows one to turn off the synonym expansion feature by simply prepending an “=” sign in front of the search term.

Our search engine also identifies acronyms during indexing and searching (defined as words consisting entirely of uppercase characters). A search for an uppercase word will only match documents which contain that acronym, whereas a search for a lowercase word will match documents which contain any variation of the word, irregardless of its case. Acronyms can themselves have synonyms (for example “ADS” and “Astrophysics Data System” are synonyms), so one should be aware that there is an interaction between case-sensitiveness and synonym expansion. The examples below illustrate these effects:

Example Query Results
title:star title contains “star”, any of its synonyms, or the acronym “STAR”
title:etoile title contains “star” or any of its synonyms (etoile being a synonym of star);
the results differ from above since “STAR” is not searched for
=title:star title contains “star” or the acronym “STAR”
=title:etoile title contains “etoile”
title:STAR title contains the acronym “STAR”
title:(=star -STAR) title contains “star” but not the acronym “STAR”
fuse the word “fuse” or acronym “FUSE” appear anywhere in the paper
FUSE the acronym “FUSE” appears anywhere in paper

Author Searches

Synoym expansion also applies to author names, which provide a way to account for changes in a person’s name and/or different spellings due to transliterations. In addition to this, the default author search in ADS is “greedy” in the sense that it will retun all documents in which an author signature may match the input search string. This allows, for instance, to have an author search for “Huchra, John” to return papers where the author name appears as “Huchra, John” or “Huchra, J.” By prepending the “=” character to the author search one can disable this feature (as well as any additional synonym expansion) and require an exact match on the author name. Some examples:

Example Query Results
author:"murray, s" Least precise variations: finds records authored by any of the following:
  • Murray, Stephen S.
  • Murray, Stephen
  • Murray, S. S.
  • Murray, S.
  • Murray, Stephen D.
  • Murray, S. D.
  • Murray, Sarah S.
  • Murray, Scott
  • ...
(any possible combination with last name "murray" and first name starting with S)
author:"murray, stephen" More precise variations: finds record authored by any of the following:
  • Murray, Stephen S.
  • Murray, Stephen
  • Murray, S. S.
  • Murray, S.
  • Murray, Stephen D.
  • Murray, S. D.
  • ...
(any possible variation of "Murray, Stephen" with or without middle name)
author:"murray, stephen s" Most precise variations: finds record authored by any of the following:
  • Murray, Stephen S.
  • Murray, Stephen
  • Murray, S. S.
  • Murray, S.
(any possible variation of "Murray, Stephen S" but no others)
=author:"murray, s" Matches only records authored by "Murray, S."
=author:"murray, stephen" Matches only records authored by "Murray, Stephen"
=author:"murray, stephen s" Matches only records authored by "Murray, Stephen S."

As a general rule we recommend to use the full name of the person for author searches since as can be seen above the matching rules in ADS are designed to find the maximal set of records consistent with the author specification given by the user. Rather than disabling the name-variation algorithm described above, we recommend performing refinement of search results via the user interface filters for author names as described in the “Filter your search” section.

Available Fields

This is a list of fields currently recognized by the ADS search engine and the preferred search format:

Field Name Syntax Example Notes
Abstract/Title abs:”phrase” abs:”dark energy” search for word or phrase in abstract & title
Acknowledgements ack:”phrase” ack:”ADS” search for a word or phrase in the ackknowledgements
Affiliation aff:”phrase” aff:”harvard” search for word or phrase in affiliation field
Abstract abstract:”phrase” abstract:”dark energy” search for a word or phrase in an abstract only
Alternate Bibcode alternate_bibcode:adsbib alternate_bibcode:2003AJ….125..525J finds articles that used to (or still have) this bibcode
Alternate Title alternate_title:”phrase” alternate_title:”Gammablitz” search for a word or phrase in an articles title if they have more than one, in multiple languages
arXiv ID arXiv:arxivid arXiv:1108.0669 finds a specific record using its arXiv id
arXiv Class arxiv_class:arxivclass arxiv_class:”High Energy Physics - Experiment” finds all arXiv pre-prints in the class specified
Author author:”Last, F” author:”huchra, j” author name may include just lastname and initial
Author (cont.) author:”Last, First […]” author:”huchra, john p” an example of stricter author search (recommended)
Bibcode bibcode:adsbib bibcode:2003AJ….125..525J finds a specific record using the ADS bibcode
Bibliographic groups bibgroup:name bibgroup:HST limit search to papers in HST bibliography (*)
Bibliographic stem bibstem:adsbibstem bibstem:ApJ find records that contain a specific bibstem in their bibcode
Body body:”phrase” body:”gravitational waves” search for a word or phrase in (only) the full text
Citation count citation_count:count citation_count:40 find records that have a specific number of citations
Copyright copyright:copyright copyright:2012 search for articles with certain copyrights
Data links data:archive data:NED limit search to papers with data from NED (*)
Database database:DB database:astronomy limit search to either astronomy or physics or general
Date Range pubdate:[YYYY-MM TO YYYY-MM] pubdate:[2005-10 TO 2006-09] use fine-grained dates for publication range
Document type doctype:type doctype:catalog limit search to records corresponding to data catalogs (*)
DOI doi:DOI doi:10.1086/345794 finds a specific record using its digital object id
First Author author:”^Last, F” author:”^huchra, j” limit the search to first-author papers
Fulltext full:”phrase” full:”gravitational waves” search for word or phrase in fulltext, acknowledgements, abstract, title and keywords
Grant grant:grant grant:NASA finds papers with specific grants listed in them
Identifiers identifier:bibcode identifier:2003AJ….125..525J finds a paper using any of its identifiers, arXiv, bibcode, doi, etc.
Issue issue:number issue:10 search for papers in a certain issue
Keywords keyword:”phrase” keyword:sun search publisher- or author-supplied keywords
Language lang:”language” lang:korean search for papers with a given language
Object object:”object” object:Andromeda search for papers tagged with astronomical object by SIMBAD
ORCiD iDs orcid:id orcid:0000-0000-0000-0000 search for papers that are associated with a specific ORCiD iD
ORCiD iDs from publishers orcid_pub:id orcid_pub:0000-0000-0000-0000 search for papers that are associated with a specific ORCiD iD specified by a Publisher
ORCiD iDs from known ADS users orcid_user:id orcid_id:0000-0000-0000-0000 search for papers that are associated with a specific ORCiD iD claimed by known ADS users
ORCiD iDs from uknknown ADS users orcid_other:id orcid_other:0000-0000-0000-0000 search for papers that are associated with a specific ORCiD iD claimed by unknown ADS users
Page page:number page:410 search for papers with a given page number
Publication bibstem:”abbrev” bibstem:ApJ limit search to a specific publication
Properties property:type property:openaccess limit search to article with specific attributes (*)
Read count read_count:count read_count:10 search for papers with a given number of reads
Title title:”phrase” title:”weak lensing” search for word or phrase in title field
VizieR keywords vizier:”phrase” vizier:”Optical” search for papers with a given set of VizieR keywords
Volume volume:volume volume:10 search for papers with a given volume
Year year:YYYY year:2000 require specific publication year
Year Range year:YYYY-YYYY year:2000-2005 require publication date range

(*) See below for details on these filters. In most cases, filtering of results based on these fields is available in the user interface.

Properties

The “properties” search field allows one to restrict the search results to papers which belong to a particular class. The allowed properties currently include:

Property flag Selection
refereed refereed papers only
notrefereed non-refereed papers only
article records corresponding to regular articles
nonarticle not regular articles, for instance meeting abstracts, observing proposals, catalog descriptions, etc
ads_openaccess OA version of article is available from ADS
eprint_openaccess OA version of article is available from arXiv
pub_openaccess OA version of article is available from publisher
openaccess article has at least one openaccess version available
ocrabstract records with an abstract generated from OCR (may contain typos or mistakes)

Bibliographic Groups

The “bibgroup” search field allows restriction of the search results to one of the ADS bibliographic groups. These groups are curated by a number of librarians and archivists who maintain either institutional or “telescope” bibliographies on behalf of their projects. Here is a partial list. For more information on the criteria behind the curation of these groups, please see the link above.

The list of current Institutional bibgroups is: ARI, CfA, CFHT, Leiden, USNO

The list of current Telescope bibgroups is: ALMA, CXC, ESO, Gemini, Herschel, HST, ISO, IUE, JCMT, Keck, Magellan, NOAO, NRAO, ROSAT, SDO, SMA, Spitzer, Subaru, Swift, UKIRT, XMM

The “data” search field can be used to select papers which have data links associated to them. The list of archives which ADS links to can be seen under the “Data” filter selection. To generate a list of all records which have data links one can issue a simple wildcard query: data:* . Using the data search field allows one to focus on data-rich papers, for example:

data:(CXO OR XMM) AND data:HST

Finds multi-wavelength papers which have observations both in the X-ray spectrum (from Chandra or XMM) and in the optical (HST). Of course additional search terms can be used to further refine the selection criteria.

Document Type

Records in ADS are assigned a document type which is indexed in the “doctype” search field, the contents of which are an extension of the BibTeX entry types. Currently these are the document types indexed by ADS:

Document Type Resource associated with record
article journal article
eprint article preprinted in arXiv
inproceedings article appearing in a conference proceedings
inbook article appearing in a book
abstract meeting abstract
book book (monograph)
catalog data catalog (or other high-level data product)
circular printed or electronic circular
intechreport article appearing in a technical report
mastersthesis Masters thesis
newsletter printed or electronic newsletter
phdthesis PhD thesis
pressrelease press release
proceedings conference proceedings book
proposal observing or funding proposal
software software package
talk research talk given at a scholarly venue
techreport technical report
misc anything not found in the above list

When you submit a query, ADS returns a list of search results. Should you want a list of all the articles which cite those search results , or all the articles which are referenced by those search results, you can use the citation or reference operators.

The syntax for these operators are references(query) and citations(query).

Examples:

citations(author:"huchra, john")           # returns the list of papers citing John Huchra's papers
references(bibcode:2003AJ....125..525J)    # returns papers cited by the paper 2003AJ....125..525J
citations(abs:HST)                         # returns papers citing papers which have "HST" in their abstract

One powerful aspect of having these operators at our disposal when creating a query is that we can combine them with additional search terms to expand or narrow your query. For example, the following query finds all papers which cite the original JWST paper as well as papers which contain the terms “Webb” or “JWST” in their abstract:

citations(bibcode:2006SSRv..123..485G) OR abs:(Webb OR JWST)

We provide three operators which modify the query results by performing second-order operations on the original query. To invoke the operators, enter the corresponding operator before your search terms (enclosing your search terms in parentheses) in the search box.

Trending – returns the list of documents most read by users who read recent papers on the topic being researched; these are papers currently being read by people interested in this field. For example:

trending(exoplanets)

will return a ranked list of papers which are currently popular among the readers interested in exoplanets.

Useful – returns the list of documents frequently cited by the most relevant papers on the topic being researched; these are studies which discuss methods and techniques useful to conduct research in this field. For example:

useful("galaxy surveys")

will return a ranked list of papers spanning a variety of topics useful to researchers interested in analyzing surveys of galaxies.

Reviews – returns the list of documents citing the most relevant papers on the topic being researched; these are papers containing the most extensive reviews of the field. For example:

reviews("weak lensing")

will return a ranked list of papers featuring reviews of weak gravitational lensing and its cosmological implications.

TopN – returns the list of top N documents for a user defined query, where they are ordered by their score or a user specified sort. For example:

topn(200, title:hubble, citation_count desc)

will return the first 200 most cited papers for documents that habe “hubble” in their title.

The pos() operator allows you to search for an item within a field by specifying the position in the field. The syntax for this operator is pos(fieldedquery,position,[endposition]). If no endposition is given, then it is assumed to be endposition = position, otherwise this performs a query within the range [position, endposition]. For example:

Example Results
pos(author:”Oort, J”,2) papers which have “J. Oort” as the second author
pos(author:”Oort, J”,2,2) same as above
pos(author:”Oort, J”,1,3) papers which have “J. Oort” as first, second, or third author
pos(aff:harvard,1) papers for which the first author has a Harvard affiliation
pos(title:M31,1) papers for which the title start with “M31”

Currently the pos() operator works on these fields: author, aff, title.

Once you have a results list from an initial query you can use our filters to further refine your search. Your results list will change each time you apply a limit.

Clicking on any of the listed terms within a filter will automatically apply that result as a filter and you will be prompted to choose “limit to” or “exclude”; if you want to choose more than one term within a specific filter you must first check the boxes next to the terms you want to choose and then choose the desired application ( and, or or exclude) from the apply box in that section.

  • Authors–here you may chose to limit your search to include or exclude individual authors. To do this choose one or more authors and the apply function will activate. Here you can choose to “and”, “or” or “exclude” authors from your resulting list.
  • Collections–here you may chose to add results from the database(s) that were not selected in your original query. You may also chose to exclude a database that was initially chosen.
  • Refereed status–here you may chose to include or exclude refereed or non-refereed publications
  • Keywords–here you may chose to narrow your results by including or excluding keywords that were found in the results of your original query.
  • Publications–here you may chose to narrow your results by including or excluding journals that were found in the results of your original query.
  • Bib Groups–here you may chose to include or exclude results from different Bib Groups within the ADS.
  • Data–here you may chose to include or exclude results that contain data in various archives (e.g. CDS, HEASARC, CXO, NED)
  • Grants–here you may chose to include or exclude results that reference grant numbers that were recognized in the original search
  • Vizier Tables–here you may chose to include or exclude articles that have Vizier Tables
  • Grants–here you may choose to include or exclude grants by funders or fund numbers

Example

  1. Search for author: “Huchra, John” in the Astronomy database (default search).
  2. Opening the author filter you will get a list that includes “Geller, M” and “Illingworth, G.” If you want the articles in which “Geller, M.” is a coauthor with “Huchra, John” you would simply click on the name “Geller, M.” in the list.
  3. If you want the articles in which either “Geller, M.” or “Illingworth, G” were coauthors you would click the boxes next to both of their names and choose “or” from the dropdown “apply” box. If you want the articles in which both “Geller, M.” and “Illingworth, G” were coauthors you would click the boxes next to both of their names and choose “and” from the dropdown “apply” box. (There should be zero results for this query!)

This is an extensive list of methods of querying the ADS system. It is a technical document and you probably don’t need to read it unless you are interested in performing advanced searches.

Solr (Virtual) Fields, Operators, and Other Stuff

An aggregated list of the fields, operators, and other parameters that are accessible from Solr. Descriptions of what they are used for, and why or where they should or should not be shown to users.

Field Name Deprecated Useful for user Show/Give access? [y/n] Explanation        
abstract n y y the abstract of the record        
ack n y y Contains acknowledgements extracted from fulltexts (if identified in article).        
aff n y y List of author affiliations in a given paper        
alternate_bibcode n y y List of alternate bibcodes for that document        
alternate_title n y y Alternate title, usually when the original title is not in English        
arxiv_class n y y Which arXiv class was the paper submitted to        
author n y y List of authors on a paper        
author_facet n y&n y&n Contains list of names with the number of occurences that author has for the search (can only be searched)        
author_facet_hier n n n Hierarchical facet field which contains author/author_id.        
author_norm n n n List of authors with their first names shortened?        
bibcode n y y ADS identifier of a paper        
bibgroup n y y Bibliographic group that the bibcode belongs to (curated by staff outside of ADS)        
bibgroup_facet n y&n y&n Contains list of groups with the number of occurrences that group has for the search        
bibstem n y y the abbreviated name of the journal or publication, e.g., ApJ.        
bibstem_facet n n n Technical field, used for faceting by publication. It contains only bibstems without volumes (eg. Sci)        
body n y n Contains extracted fulltext minus acknowledgements section        
citation n y n List of bibcodes that cite the paper        
citation_count n y y number of citations the item has received        
cite_read_boost n n n Float values containing normalized (float) boost factors. These can be used with functional queries to modify ranking of results.        
classic_factor n n n Integer values containing the boost factor used by ADS Classic. In essence log(1 + cites + norm_reads) where number of citations has been normalized and the whole value is multiplied by 5000 and then cast to Integer.        
comment n y tbd This is currently indexed, but not stored. To see the values, Solr needs to also store it.        
copyright n y y Copyright given by the publisher        
data n y y List of sources that have data related to this bibcode        
data_facet n y&n y&n Contains list of data with the number of occurrences that data has for the search        
database n y y Database that the paper resides in (astronomy or physics)        
date n n n Same as pubdate, but of time format and used for indexing; too excessive for a user to care about/use        
doctype n n n Type of document: article, thesis, etc, these stem from classic        
doi n y y Digital object identifier        
eid n y y electronic id of the paper (equivalent of page number)        
email n y n List of e-mails for the authors that included them in the article; protect due to privacy concerns - difficult to stop unless we stop people seeing it now        
facility n y tbd List of facilities declared in paper (controlled list for AAS journals so far). Needs to be added in ADSImportpipeline and Solr schemas        
first_author n y y First author of the paper        
first_author_facet_hier n y&n y&n Contains list of first names with the number of occurrences that author has for the search, contains author/author_id        
first_author_norm n n n First author of the paper with their first name shortened?        
grant n y y Field that contains both grant ids and grant agencies.        
grant_agencies y n n Index with just the grant agencies names (e.g. NASA).        
grant_facet_hier n n n Hierarchical facet field which contains grant/grant_id. This field is not suitable for user queries, but rather for UI components. Term frequencies and positions are deactivated.        
grant_id n n n Index with just the grant ids (e.g. 0618398)        
id n n y a unique integer for this record. Generally not useful, but used by Andy Casey’s python client        
identifier n y y an array of alternative identifiers for the record. May contain alternative bibcodes, DOIs and/or arxiv ids.        
ids_data ? ? ? https://github.com/adsabs/issues/issues/73        
indexstamp n y y Date at which the document was indexed by Solr YYYY-MM-DD’T’hh:mm:ss.SSS’Z’        
isbn n y tbd ISBN of the publication (this applies to books)        
issn n y tbd ISSN of the publication (applies to journals - ie. periodical publications)        
issue n y y Issue number of the journal that includes the article        
keyword n y y an array of normalized and non-normalized keyword values associated with the record        
keyword_facet n y&n y&n Contains list of keywords with the number of occurrences that keyword has for the search        
keyword_norm n n n Controlled keywords, each entry will have a corresponding keyword_schema entry        
keyword_schema n y y Schema for each controlled keyword, i.e., what was the origin of the keyword?        
lang n y y In ADS this field contains a language of the main title. Currently, this value is present in a very small portion of records (try searching for lang:*)        
links_data n n n We use it to contain info on what readable linked documents are available?        
orcid_other n y y ORCID claims from users who used Bumblebee claiming interface, but did not give us consent to show their profiles        
orcid_pub n y y ORCID IDs supplied by publishers        
orcid_user n y y ORCID claims from users who gave ADS consent to expose their public profiles.        
page n y y String value (possibly two) indicating page range.        
property n y y an array of miscellaneous flags associated with the record. Possible values include: ARTICLE, REFEREED, NOT_REFEREED, INPROCEEDINGS, OPENACCESS, NONARTICLE, EPRINT, BOOK, PROCEEDINGS, CATALOG, SOFTWARE        
pub n y y the canonical name of the publication the record appeared in        
pub_raw n n n Name of publisher, but also includes the volume, page, and issue if exists        
pubdate n y y publication date in the form YYYY-MM-DD (DD value will always be “00”) - May be interesting for people who want publication month        
read_count n y y number of times the record has been viewed within in a 90-day windows (ads and arxiv); len(readers)        
reader n y n List of identifiers for people who have read the article        
recid n n n Unique identifier of the document, Integer version of ‘id’ - this is more efficient for sorting, and range queries        
reference n y n List of references inside a paper        
simbad_object_facet_hier n y&n y&n The hierarchical facets consisting of object_type/object_id        
simbid n y y List of SIMBAD IDs within the paper. This has privacy restrictions        
simbtype n y y Keywords used to describe the SIMBAD type        
thesis ? ? ? https://github.com/adsabs/issues/issues/72        
title n y y the title of the record        
vizier n y y Keywords, “subject” tags from VizieR        
vizier_facet n y&n y&n Contains list of VizieR keywords with the number of occurences that keyword has for the search        
volume n y y Volume of the journal that the article exists in        
year n y y Year of publication        
Virtual Fields/Operators                
abs n y y Combination of the following: abstract, title, keyword        
all n n n this combines the following: author_norm, alternate_title, bibcode, doi, identifier        
arxiv n y y query parser token        
citations() n y y returns list of citations from given papers        
citis() y n n Different implementation of citation(), less memory but slower        
classic_relevance() n n n Toy-implementation of the ADS Classic relevance score algorithm. You can wrap any query and obtain the hits sorted in the ADS Classic ways (sort of)        
full n y y this combines the following: title^2, abstract^2, body, keyword, ack        
instructive() y n n Synonym of reviews()        
joincitations() y n n Equivalent of citations() but implemented using lucene block-join        
joinreferences() y n n Equivalent of references() but implemented using lucene block-join        
orcid n y y this combined the following: orcid_pub, orcid_user, orcid_other        
pos() n y y The pos() operator allows you to search for an item within a field by specifying the position in the field. The syntax for this operator is pos(fieldedquery,position,[endposition]). If no endposition is given, then it is assumed to be endposition = position, otherwise this performs a query within the range [position, endposition].        
references() n y y returns list of references from given papers        
reviews() n y y returns the list of documents citing the most relevant papers on the topic being researched; these are papers containing the most extensive reviews of the field.        
reviews2() y n n Original implementation of reviews        
topn() n y y Return the top N number of documents        
trending() n y y Trending – returns the list of documents most read by users who read recent papers on the topic being researched; these are papers currently being read by people interested in this field.        
useful() n y y Useful – returns the list of documents frequently cited by the most relevant papers on the topic being researched; these are studies which discuss methods and techniques useful to conduct research in this field.        
useful2() y n n What experts are citing; original implementation of useful() Field Name Deprecated Useful for user Show/Give access? [y/n]