The following section describes, in ugly detail, the logic of author parsing. The rules can (and will) on occassion change. But unless you have to be here and want to really know the details just run, run away from here, quick!
OK, so what happens when we search for
author:"john paul II"?
First, the query string is turned into an abstract syntax tree (see search parser for details) - that is the syntactic (low) level, above it there is the semantic level of parsing and modifications.
The parser will already know we are searching inside field
author - it will also know the tokenizer chain (rules) that apply to that field(s). So it will run the input through the tokenizer, then it will collect various outputs (tokens - more on that later), and then it will further expand/modify/transform these.
Oh, and by the way: there is a slight difference between what we do at index time, and at the search time. So pay attention to it.
If you are still here, let’s dive in:
Down the Rabbit Hole
Let’s take one example
author:"Adamczuk, Piotr Gavrilov Eugenyi". A heraldically attuned audience member will immediately pick up that the guy is probably of Polish or Russian descent, quite likely from a noble family (blue blood runs through his veins so his name may appear next to a honorary title; but who cares? Well, our parser does).
People are unable to remember all his names, not even editors in the scientific publications, and let’s face it, they are of different origins themselves. So, some type his name as
Adamcuk, confuse his name with
Peter, pay no attention to uncle
Gavrilov and can’t decide whether to spell his name as
Evzen and so on. Fortunately, there aren’t that many persons of female gender and name
Piotr, but we can’t be sure about that either (yet people will still claim it is crystal clear…)
Anyways, it is complicated - so let’s start. Somebody (fortunately) for us, remembers spelling of the surname and types:
Our search tokenizer is going to take the input in its entirety (i.e. NO tokenization into
adamzuk) and will pass the input to a Python library. Since the search engine is written in Java, in reality the library will be executed by Jython - so we are calling Java which looks like Python, but as you can see, I’m sparing you no details…
The library will recognize
first name correctly most of the time. So
Pope John Paul the II would lose all his titles and become
Paul, John – but we don’t know anything besides the characters. We are not consulting Wikipedia to find out the real name of the Pope, nor the author (at least not yet). And our
Peter is recognized as the first name, and
Adamczuk as the last name.
Next are some boring filters: one of them normalizes the names.
Adamczuk , P becomes
Adamczuk, P, and
Lao tzu,. And we also reject any search with 6 or more names. Why? Well, because it can lead to 6^n combinations (in the worst case) in the later stages.
Next comes transliterations – what’s that you ask? Well, English is the Lingua Franca of scientific discourse - but only for the past two hundred years. The dominance of English alphabet in all things electronic is also a thing of the past, but humans are forever lazy (or intelligent) and when confronted with
e …. characters, they say ‘Aha! That’s
e’. All accents lost. So naturally, they want to be able to search for
jonas and find
jonáš as well. And so we oblige. Internally at ADS we use
UTF-8 character encoding but we don’t force the English-centric writers to think in more than 26 characters of English alphabet. Also by convention, scientific publications oftentimes insist on transliterating native author names into ASCII.
So in the case of
adamczuk, p at this stage we will discover that ADS database contains
adamčuk, peter (we’d see also
adamčuk, p if it was necessary)
Intermezzo #0 - how are transliterations generated/found?
Periodically, small minions at ADS will wake up every week, read all author names and compile a list of the following form:
adamczuk, p => adamčuk, p adamczuk, peter => adamčuk, peter adamczuk, pavel => adamčuk, pavel
That is, we have a set of rules - some of them custom to ADS, but the majority stemming from Java Unidecode library (the industry convention) which will transform any non-ASCII input into ASCII transliterations. The generated vocabulary of names has at this point millions of entries (2024917 and counting) and contains every non-Latin character that has ever appeared in the ADS database. The dictionary is then used (at search time) to lookup
UTF-8 variants when users give us an
Technical note: the lookup is done via suffix trie (a search tree built by a finite state machine). So even though the dictionary has over 2M distinct entries, the cost of lookup is just the length of the input and the space occupied by the internal datastructure which is a fraction of the original size - if we were counting characters. Our 2M dictionary of names seems large, but still a far cry from the theoretical limit of 2B nodes. For details see this nice blogpost.
Another option to solve this problem would be to index the transliterated names alongside with their
UTF-8 originals (as ADS Classic used to do – because it could not think in
UTF-8) but as you will see, if you continue reading, the transliterated versions are also used to discover potential synonyms of the author’s names – so either we index all potential variants and derived synonyms, or we do all of that work at search time. There’s no free lunch.
– end of intermezzo #0 —
Back to the rabbit hole: so we got the original input
peter adamzuk ->
adamczuk, peter, we have discovered the transliteration (
adamčuk, peter). Next we proceed to discover all other names of this guy/gal. Maybe he/she got married, divorced, changed gender, remarried … whatever the reason, the world is changing. ADS curators are being notified by authors or readers all the time and update our ‘knowledge base’ of author names. That is what gets consulted in this step. We’ll discover that
adamčuk, peter was previously
adamčuková, petra (the name is made up, but such situations will exist).
Next, we’ll use all of the name variants discovered so far, and take one step further – we’ll generate possible name variations, so for example authors with more than 2 names
zeta john jones – they could be known in the scientific literature as
zeta john, j, and even
zeta, j j (well, and possibly
john jones, zeta – if we can’t tell what is the first and last name, you get the idea…)
So the parser will tentatively generate a multitude of possible names and spellings and will use them all to search for other ‘real’ people. If it finds anybody new, it will sigh deeply, discard the temporary variants and then proceed to generate new
transliterations and new
synonyms of any new (real) person that was found in ADS database. As a way of example, this is what we’ll get:
- adamzuk, peter
- adamčuk, peter
- adamčuková, petra
- stoklasová, petra
- stoklasova, petra
All these names were added because our parser consulted the knowledge base of author names. Our parser doesn’t know this is one and the same person; but it has a way of seeing/discovering the chain of name changes. If the knowledge database is correct, which is most of the time, it will be able to start from the user input and arrive at other names.
In the next stages, we’ll deduplicate entries and normalize them once again. We’ll also generate a few other different queries to account for idiosynracies in how ADS stores/searches/curates data. For example, oftentimes the papers are given to ADS without full author names and will only contain initials, so even though you may want to search for the full name, we’ll also (automatically) expand the search to include the initials (or vice versa - you are searching for initials but we’ll insist to expand your search – be less precise, more comprehensive). It depends on the input. If for example user typed
acamczuk, p then our parser will assume they are fine with
adamczuk, p* (and give them all peters, piotrs, pauls, pans and pons), but if the user typed
adamczuk, peter then the search engine will take care not to search for
adamczuk, p*, instead it will return
adamczuk, p <some other name> and all of the synonyms thereof (
adamčuková, p *,
So what started as a few characters (one query) is turned behind the scenes into a massive and very complicated query. There is a constant battle between the desire to be precise, and the desire to include everybody who should be there (recall). Yet all of this without really knowing much about the person, all we have is just a bunch of characters. The logic is complex, it takes advantage of what ADS knows about the authors and includes a knowledge base (plus business logic) but it is far from being able to understand the ‘intentions’ of the user; and it has no real model of a person (and their relationships).
If it produces unexpected results, it usually is because of these reasons:
- there is a bug somewhere in this insanely complex chain – a bug that was not caught by even the more insanely large suite of unittests (the frequency of this being the case is diminishing rapidly with time, and it happens rarely - but it is really difficult to say with certainty until the whole testsuite is examined; so it should always be the first option)
- the curated knowledge base is too broad or too narrow: i.e. it is missing a connection, or has connection too many – and joins unrelated names together
- haphazard interferences: wrong data indexed, wrong or outdated versions of synonyms/transliterations deployed, parts of the production cluster being down, parts of the backoffice processing pipeline being down….
Parts of the author search logic can be turned on/off; here are some of the most useful options:
=author:"adamzuk, p"the equal sign will instruct our parser not to look for transliterations/synonyms/variants
author:/adamzuk,\ p/– you can use regular expressions, basically throwing away all the fancy logic; but mind that in the real world people really have many different names; so with this approach you will only find papers that contain just the characters of your pattern
author:"adamczuk, p"~0.7– the funny tilde float number activates a fuzzy search for the similarly sounding names. You’ll need to play with the modifier until you get names that work for a particular use case (the range is 0.1-1.0). See search parser for details.
– end of intermezzo #1 —